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java lang package
Complete Tutorial on java.lang Package.

java lang package

java.lang Package

java.lang Package in Java

java.lang package in java provides classes that are fundamental to the design of the Java programming language. The most important classes are Object, which is the root of the class hierarchy, and Class, instances of which represent classes at run time. This java.lang package tutorial also available in DOC and PDF formats also.

What is the Java lang package ?

The package java.lang contains classes and interfaces that are essential to the Java programming language. This java.lang package contains Object, Thread, String etc. Object class is the ultimate super class of all classes in Java. Thread class that controls each thread in a multi threaded program. The classes in the java.lang package are so essential, the java.lang package is implicitly imported by every Java source file. In other words, you can refer to all of the classes and interfaces in java.lang using their simple names.

What is package in Java ?

A Package is a collection of related classes. It helps organize your classes into a folder structure and make it easy to locate and use them. More importantly, it helps improve re-usability. Each package in Java has its unique name and organizes its classes and interfaces into a separate name space, or name group. Although interfaces and classes with the same name cannot appear in the same package, they can appear in different packages. This is possible by assigning a separate name space to each package.

Do I need to import the java.lang package ?

No, java.lang package is a default package in Java therefore, there is no need to import it explicitly. i.e. without importing you can access the classes of java.lang package.

Where is Java Lang package ?

The packages that include the class libraries like java.lang.* and java.util.*, these live in the lib directory under wherever your Java Runtime Environment (JRE) is installed.

Why Java Lang is the default package in Java ?

The Java standard libraries include java.lang package by default, which contains a number of components that are used very commonly in Java programs. Java is useless without much of the functionality in java.lang , that's why java.lang is implicitly imported by the compiler for all programs.

Is java.lang package imported by default ?

Yes, the java.lang package is imported by default. The java.lang package is imported implicitly, so the Java compiler automatically imports this package.

Lang package in Java with Example

Package java.lang contains the wrapper classes Boolean , Character , Integer , Long , Float , and Double serve this purpose. An object of type Double , for example, contains a field whose type is double, representing that value in such a way that a reference to it can be stored in a variable of reference type.

Which of the classes are in the Java lang package ?

Wrapper Classes in Java

Frequently it is necessary to represent a value of primitive type as if it were an object. The wrapper classes Boolean, Character, Integer, Long, Float, and Double serve this purpose. An object of type Double, for example, contains a field whose type is double, representing that value in such a way that a reference to it can be stored in a variable of reference type. These classes also provide a number of methods for converting among primitive values, as well as supporting such standard methods as equals and hashCode. All the wrapper classes are available in java.lang package.

Wrapper classes in Java as follows.

  1. Boolean : The Boolean class wraps a value of the primitive type boolean in an object.
  2. Byte : The Byte class wraps a value of primitive type byte in an object.
  3. Character : The Character class wraps a value of the primitive type char in an object.
  4. Short : The Short class wraps a value of primitive type short in an object.
  5. Integer : The Integer class wraps a value of the primitive type int in an object.
  6. Float : The Float class wraps a value of primitive type float in an object.
  7. Long : The Long class wraps a value of the primitive type long in an object.
  8. Double : The Double class wraps a value of the primitive type double in an object.

Mathematical Operations Classes in Java

The class Math provides commonly used mathematical functions such as sine, cosine, and square root. Mathematical classes in Java as follows.

  1. Math : The class Math contains methods for performing basic numeric operations such as the elementary exponential, logarithm, square root, and trigonometric functions.
  2. StrictMath : The class StrictMath contains methods for performing basic numeric operations such as the elementary exponential, logarithm, square root, and trigonometric functions.

String Operations Classes in Java

The classes String, StringBuffer, and StringBuilder similarly provide commonly used operations on character strings. String class in Java as follows.

  1. String : The String class represents character strings.
  2. StringBuffer : A thread-safe, mutable sequence of characters.
  3. StringBuilder : A mutable sequence of characters.

System Operations Classes in Java

Classes ClassLoader, Process, ProcessBuilder, Runtime, SecurityManager, and System provide "system operations" that manage the dynamic loading of classes, creation of external processes, host environment inquiries such as the time of day, and enforcement of security policies.

System operations classes in Java as follows.

  1. ClassLoader : A class loader is an object that is responsible for loading classes.
  2. Process : Process provides control of native processes started by ProcessBuilder.start and Runtime.exec.
  3. ProcessBuilder : ProcessBuilder class is used to create operating system processes.
  4. Runtime : Every Java application has a single instance of class Runtime that allows the application to interface with the environment in which the application is running.
  5. SecurityManager : The security manager is a class that allows applications to implement a security policy.
  6. System : The System class contains several useful class fields and methods.

Errors and Exceptions Classes in Java

Class Throwable encompasses objects that may be thrown by the throw statement. Subclasses of Throwable represent errors and exceptions.

Errors and Exceptions operations classes in Java as follows.

  1. Throwable : The Throwable class is the super class of all errors and exceptions in the Java language.

Character Encoding Classes in Java

The specification of the java.nio.charset.Charset class describes the naming conventions for character encodings as well as the set of standard encodings that must be supported by every implementation of the Java platform.

void Classes in Java

The Void class is a non-instantiable class that holds a reference to a Class object representing the type void.

  1. Void : The Void class is an uninstantiable placeholder class to hold a reference to the Class object representing the Java keyword void.

Other java.lang package Classes

  1. Object : Class Object is the root of the class hierarchy.
  2. Class : Instances of the class Class represent classes and interfaces in a running Java application.
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